The Induction of Primary and Secondary Somatic Embryo to Support Arabica Coffee Propagation


  • Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
  • Raden Roro Sri Hartati
  • Rubiyo Rubiyo
  • Agus Purwito Bogor Agricultural University
  • Sudarsono Sudarsono Bogor Agricultural University



The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis can be used to propagate Coffea arabica L clonally.  However, the success of this propagation was depended on plant growth regulator and varieties. This study aimed to examine the possibility of 2,4-D and thidiazuron application to form primary and secondary somatic embryo to support Arabica coffee clonal propagation. The study consisted of two activities (1) 2,4-D and thidiazuron Application to Induce Primary Somatic Embryogenesis of Arabica Coffee and (2) The Application of thidiazuron in Solid and Semi-Solid Media to Induce Secondary Somatic Embryos.  The results indicated significant effect of varieties and plant growth regulator on fresh weight, number of torpedo and germinated embryo.  However, it showed no significant effect on callus formation percentage. The best medium to induce primary somatic embryogenesis depending on variety, on the treatment of 4.52 μM 2,4 -D +18.16 μM thidiazuron was the best for AS2K and Sigarar Utang varieties, S 795 at 4.52 μM 2,4-D + 9.08 μM thidiazuron, whereas Kartika at 4.52 μM 2.4-D + 13.62 μM thidiazuron.  The morphology of coffee somatic embryo was normal.  Primary somatic embryo was developed indirectly, whereas the secondary somatic embryo was directly.  The application of 9.08 μM thidiazuron  increased the percentage and number of secondary somatic embryos, hence enhancing number of Arabica coffee planlet.


Keywords : Coffea arabica L, 2,4-D, thidiazuron, semi-solid media, Indirect somatic embryogenesis

Author Biographies

Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development

Researcher, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar

(Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute)

Raden Roro Sri Hartati

Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD)

Rubiyo Rubiyo

Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD)

Agus Purwito, Bogor Agricultural University

PMB Lab., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture

Sudarsono Sudarsono, Bogor Agricultural University

PMB Lab., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture


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How to Cite

Ibrahim, M. S. D., Hartati, R. R. S., Rubiyo, R., Purwito, A., & Sudarsono, S. (2016). The Induction of Primary and Secondary Somatic Embryo to Support Arabica Coffee Propagation. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 2(3), 6–13.