Pests and Diseases in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) Cultivated in The Greenhouse


  • Hagia Sophia Khairani Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University
  • Lia Nurulalia Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University
  • Sintho Wahyuning Ardie Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University



pest control methods, fungal infection, pests


Greenhouse ecosystem with more stable abiotic factors could affect the population and diversity of pests and diseases found on foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) compared to their natural ecosystems. We observed and identified pests and diseases in seven genotypes of foxtail millet namely “Toraja”, “ICERI 5”, “ICERI 6”, “Botok 4”, “Botok 10”, “Mauliru”, and “Hambapraing”; these activities are important for the formulation of appropriate integrated pest management techniques. Using plant samples that were at the end of their vegetative phase, we found white mycelia of Fusarium incarnatum (yellowish-white colonies) and F. verticilloides (violetish-pink colonies) covering the ear-tip of the seeds and developed rapidly leading to seed rotten symptoms in “Toraja”, “ICERI 5”, and “ICERI 6”. The disease severity remained constant after these integrated management techniques were put in place. However, abnormalities in leaves leading to failure of panicle emergence occurred in “Botok 4”, “Botok 10”, “Mauliru”, and “Hambapraing”. These were caused by the fungi Penicillium sp. Identical controlling techniques were applied to this incidence and the disease incidence was reduced. Corn leaf aphids (Rhophalosiphum maidis) and rice mealybugs (Brevenia rehi) were recorded as main insect pests with severe attack. The aphid, R. maidis, colonized the stems and were associated with the sooty mold (Capnodium sp.), resulting in wilting. The mealybugs, B. rehi, colonized the flag leaves resulting in leaf rotting. Insecticide and isolating the attacked plants were used as the controlling techniques. Red-mites (Tetranychus urticae) were also detected as indicated by chlorotic spots on the upper part of the leaves. Acaricide was used to reduce its population. The pests and diseases found in the seven genotypes of foxtail millet are commonly known to occur in Poaceae. In general, greenhouse ecosystem for foxtail millet facilitated planting with high population with lower diversity of pests and diseases compared to the open field planting.


Ardie, S. W., Khumaida, N., Nur, A., Fauziah, N. (2015). Early identification of salt tolerant foxtail millet. Proceedia Food Science 3, 303-312.

[CABI] Center for Agriculture and Bioscience International (2019). “Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite).” [May 20, 2021]

Capinera, J.L. (2001). “Handbook of Vegetable Pests”. pp 729. Academic Press.

Cooke, B. M. (2006). Disease assessment and yield loss. In “The Epidemiology of Plant Diseases”. Kluwer Publishers.

Fasulo, T.R., Denmark, H.A. (2009). Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae). [May 18, 2021].

Franco, F.P., Moura, D. S., Vivanco, J. M., Silva-Filho, M. C. (2017). Plant-insect-pathogen interaction, a naturally complex menage a trois. Current Opinion in Microbiology 37, 54-60.

Gullino, M.L., Albajes, R., Nicot, P. (2020). “Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouse Crops”. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22304-5

Hidayat, P., Rahmah, S. F., Maharani, Y. (2020). Host plants and pictorial key of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on food crops in Bogor and Cianjur Districts, West Java Province. Advances in Biological Sciences Research 8, 6-17. DOI: 10.2991/absr.k.200513.002

Kalaisekar, A., Padmaja, P.G., Bhagwat, V.R., Patil, J.V. (2017). “Insect Pests of Millets: Systematics, Bionomics, and Management”. ICAR – Indian Institute of Millets Research. Academic Press – Elsevier Inc.

Leslie, J.F., Summerell, B.A. (2006). “The Fusarium Laboratory Manual”. Blackwell Publishing.

Manjula, T., Krishnappa, M. (2020). Seed borne fungi of three minor-millets in central, Karnataka, India. Plant Archives 20, 6832-6836.

Miller, D., Rung, A., Parikh, G., Venable, G., Redford, A. J., Evans, G. A., Gill, R. J. (2014). Scale Insects: Brevenia rehi (Lindinger). [May 19, 2021].

Plant Wise Knowledge Bank. (2021). “Rice mealybug Brevenia rehi, Crop Protection Compedium (CPC) CABI”. [May 19, 2021].

Presello, D. A., Iglesias, J., Botta, G., Eyhe´rabide, G. H. (2006). Severity of Fusarium ear rot and concentration of fumonisin in grain of Argentinian maize hybrids. Crop Protection 26, 852-855.

Sharma, N., Niranjan, K. (2017). Foxtail millet: properties, processing, health benefits, and uses. Food Reviews International. DOI: [May 22, 2021].

Singh, K., Frisvad J.C., Thrane U., Mathur S.B. (1991). “An Illustrated Manual on Identification of Some Seed-Borne Aspergilli, Fusaria, Penicillia, and Their Mycotoxins”. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries.

Stocks, I. (2013). Tuttle mealybug Brevennia rehi. DOI: [May 22, 2021]

Watanabe, T. (2002). “Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi”. 2nd ed. CRC Press.

Zheng, Z., Wang, Y.F., and Dong, Z.P. (2019). First report of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex causing ear rot of foxtail millet in Northwest region of China. New Diseases Report 40, 8.




How to Cite

Khairani, H. S., Nurulalia, L., & Ardie, S. W. (2021). Pests and Diseases in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv.) Cultivated in The Greenhouse. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 8(03), 146–153.