The Growth of Mangroves in Created Wetland in the Porong River, East Java, Indonesia

  • Faisal Hamzah Institute for Marine Research and Observation
  • Nuryani Widakti
  • Frida Sidik


Mangrove plantation projects have been established in the created mangrove wetland in the mouth of the Porong River, East Java, in parallel with the construction of reclamation area for LUSI mud dumping area. This study was aimed to assess the growth of planted mangrove in a created mangrove wetland in relation to the environmental parameters, which are sediment salinity, sediment fraction, pore water salinity, pH/eH, and total organic matter (TOM) in the sediment. Periodical measurement of mangrove growth Avicennia sp. and the environmental parameters were undertaken in the created wetland and in the mud flats of intact mangrove forest nearby the created wetland as the natural reference in July to November 2012. We found that sediments in the created wetland had different characteristics of sediment fractions, sediment salinity and TOM compared to sediments in the mud flats of intact forests. Sand dominated sediments with low TOM and higher water salinity in the created wetland as compared to those in the mud flats affected growth rate of mangroves in study sites. We suggest that TOM and salinity are important factors that contribute to the growth of mangroves in the Porong River.


Keywords: Mangrove, salinity, Porong River, total organic matter.

Author Biography

Faisal Hamzah, Institute for Marine Research and Observation
Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries


Alongi, D. M., Clough, B. F., and Robertson, A. I. (2005). Nutrient-use efficiency in arid-zone forests of the mangroves Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina. Aquatic Botany 82, 121–131.

Alongi, D. M., and Brinkman, R. (2011). Hydrology and biogeochemistry of mangrove forests. In “Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions” (D.F. Levia, D. Carlyle-Moses and T. Tanaka, eds.), pp. 203-219. Springer.

Ball, M. C. (1988). Ecophysiology of mangroves. Trees-Structure and Function 2, 129-142

Davis S. E., Corronado-Molina C., Childers D.L., and Day J.W. (2003). Temporally dependent C, N, and P dynamics associated with the decay of Rhizophora mangle L. leaf litter in oligotrophic mangrove wetlands of the Southern Everglades. Aquatic Botany 75,199-215.

Duarte, C. M., Thampanya, U., Terrados, J., Hansen, O. G, and Fortes,

M. D. (1999). The determination of age and growth of South East

Asian mangrove seedlings from internodal counts. Mangrove and Salt Marshes 3, 251-257.

Hogarth, P. J. (1994). “The Biology of Mangroves”. 228 pp. Oxford University Press.

Hutching, P. and P. Saenger. (1987). “Ecology of Mangrove”. 388 pp. University of Queensland Press

Jennerjahn, T.C., Jänen, I., Propp, C., Adi, S., and Nugroho, S.P. (2013). Environmental impact of mud volcano inputs on the anthropogenically altered Porong River and Madura Strait coastal waters, Java, Indonesia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 130, 152-160.

Lee S.Y. (1995). Mangrove outwelling: a review. Hydrobiologia 295, 203-212.

Mazzini, A., Svensen, H., Akhmanov, G., Aloisi, G., Planke, S., Malthe-Sørenssen, A., and Istadi, B. (2007). Triggering and dynamic evolution of the LUSI mud volcano, Indonesia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261, 375-388.

McKee, K.L. and Faulkner, P.L. (2000). Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests. Restoration Ecology 8, 247-259.

Nedwell D.B., Blackburn T.H., and Wiebe W.J. (1994). Dynamic nature of the turnover of organic carbon, nitrogen and sulphur in the sediments of Jamaican mangrove forest. Marine Ecology Progress Series 110, 223-231.

Nurdiansyah, H. D. (2011). “Studi Sebaran Sedimen dari Outlet Pembuangan Lumpur Lapindo sampai Muara Kali Porong”. Skripsi. Jurusan Teknik Kelautan, Fakultas Teknologi Kelautan, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November. Indonesia.

Reef, R., Feller, I.C., and Lovelock, C.E. (2010). Nutrition of mangroves. Tree Physiology 30, 1148–1160.

Ruiz-Jaen, M.C. and Aide, T.M. (2005). Restoration success: How is it being measured? Restoration Ecology 13, 569-577.

Sidik, F., Hidayatullah, T., Kadarisman, H. P., and Lovelock, C. E.(2013). Evaluation of mangrove development in a created mangrove wetland in Porong, East Java. In “Mainstreaming Mangroves: Proceeding of Regional Symposium on Mangrove Ecosystem Management in Southeast Asia” (B. Santoso B. and T. Kusano, eds). Ministry of Forestry Indonesia. Surabaya.

Valiela, I., Bowen, J.L., and York, J.K. (2001). Mangrove forests: one of the world's threatened major tropical environments. Bioscience 51, 807-815.